Cardiac complexities: all we have to know about our heart


  • Pravallika Boodidha Doctor of Pharmacy, Avanthi institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, cherukupally, vizianagaram
  • Anusha Doddi Doctor of Pharmacy, Avanthi institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, cherukupally, vizianagaram
  • Sireesha Mamidi Doctor of Pharmacy, Avanthi institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, cherukupally, vizianagaram
  • Himabindu Nuka Doctor of Pharmacy, Avanthi institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, cherukupally, vizianagaram
  • Uma Sankar Viriti Associate Professor, Avanthi institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cherukupally, Vizianagaram



CVDs, CHD, IHD, HTN, ECG, Tobacco use, diabetes


The leading cause of death worldwide is cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 2019, an estimated 17.9 million people died from CVDs, or 32% of all deaths worldwide. Over 75% of deaths from cardiovascular disease occur in low- and middle-income countries. Many CVDs can be prevented by identifying behavioural risk factors like poor diet, smoking, tobacco use, hyperlipedema, obesity, harmful alcohol use, and lack of physical activity. A group of ailments known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, and other conditions. Additionally, heart attacks and strokes account for four out of every five CVD deaths, and one-third of these deaths occur in people under the age of 70. Frequently, the basic blood vessel disease goes unnoticed for years. A heart attack or stroke could be the first symptom of an underlying condition. Pain or discomfort in the middle of the chest, as well as discomfort or pain in the left shoulder, arms, jaw, elbows, or back, numbness, and weakness, are all signs of a heart attack. Additionally, the individual could experience respiratory problems or fatigue, numbness, and back pain. Additionally, the person may have shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, nausea or vomiting, faintness and light-headedness, sweating, shivering, and a change in skin colour. Women are more likely than men to have nausea, breathlessness, jaw or back discomfort, and vomiting. An array of imaging studies and laboratory testing are used to diagnose CVDs. The patient's medical history and family history, physical examination, risk factors, and combining these findings with the outcomes of treatments and tests make up the majority of a diagnosis The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages governments to manage, prevent, and monitor cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by increasing global strategies to minimise the incidence, mortality, and morbidity of these diseases. Some of the typical tests performed to diagnose cardiovascular diseases include: Blood tests and chest X-rays include ECG or EKG, Echocardiogram, Coronary angiogram, MRI, CCTA, and other tests. Reduced risk factors, the cessation of tobacco use, reduced salt intake, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, well planned physical activity, and abstinence from alcohol abuse have all been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CVDs . Increasing the capacity of the health system to care for people with CVD, distributing standards of care, and monitoring disease patterns and trends to inform national and international initiatives. The consequences of behavioural risk factors, which are linked to important socioeconomic determinants and drivers including income, ageing, and urbanisation, may manifest in people as raised blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood lipids, obesity, and overweight.


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How to Cite

Boodidha, P. ., A. . Doddi, S. . Mamidi, H. . Nuka, and U. S. Viriti. “Cardiac Complexities: All We Have to Know about Our Heart”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics and Drug Analysis, vol. 10, no. 4, Dec. 2022, pp. 95-105, doi:10.47957/ijpda.v10i4.522.



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