Formulation and evaluation of eco-friendly handmade herbal mosquito repellent cone
Keywords:Mosquito repellent, contagious diseases, burning time
A mosquito belongs to the insect-family Culicidae, order Diptera, suborder Nematocera and class Insecta. Mosquito act as vector which carries many disease causing parasites and viruses. Preventing mosquito spread is immensely necessary to stop spread of various contagious diseases. Now days, uses of plant based mosquito repellent have increased as synthetic repellents contains many noxious chemicals which can cause possible toxicity like skin toxicity and causes swelling, redness, itching and many health problems. The herbal mosquito repellent cones were prepared by using saw dust, cow dung, gum acacia, neem powder, eucalyptus powder and lemon grass powder. Lemon grass has insecticidal property. Saw dust increases the combustion. Gum acacia act as binder. Cow dung shows antioxidant and mosquito repellent property. Neem has mosquito repellent property. Herbal mosquito repellent cone were prepared by hand rolling method. The evaluation parameters of herbal mosquito repellent cone contain burning time (min), smoke visibility, odor, irritation test, ash weight (g.) and mosquito repellent activity. The formulation LNC containing lemon grass powder along with neem powder and cow dung in equal ratio shows best activity and maximum effectiveness in reducing mosquito number in comparison with all other formulations. In present study, the powders used in formulation were herbal based and eco-friendly and producing no side-effect on use. Here an attempt has been made to find out the novel formulation of different herbal plant powders containing alone and with combination for mosquito repellent cone.
Makhaik M., Naik SN., Tewary DK. Evaluation of anti-mosquito properties of essential oils. J Sci Ind Res 2005; 64: 129-133
Mohomed AA., Tarek IAAM., Zarrag IAA. Larvicidal and repellent effect of some Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae) extracts against the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J Saudi Soc 2012; 20: 13-16.
Karunamoorthi K, Ilango K. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae), the principal malaria vector. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010;14 (1):57–62.
Chaiyakunapruk N., Kongkaew C., Sakunrag I., Tawatsin. Effectiveness of citronella preparations in preventing mosquito bites: systematic review of controlled laboratory experimental studies. Tropical Med Int Health 2011; 16: 802-810.
Gubler DJ. Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem. Emerging infectious diseases. 1998 Jul;4(3):442.
Madhumathy AP, Aivazi AA, Vijayan VA. Larvicidal efficacy of Capsicum annum against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. J Vector Borne Dis. 2007; 44:223-6.
Klowden MJ. Blood, sex, and the mosquito. Bioscience. 1995 May 1;45(5):326-31.
Frandin MS, Day JF. Comparative efficacy of insect repellents against mosquito bites. New England journal of Medicine 2002; 347: 13-18.
BravermanY, Chizov-Ginzburg A, Mullens, BA. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).Journal of Medical Entomology,1999; 36(1): 113–115.
E.J. Mavundza, R. Maharaj, J.F. Finnie, G. Kabera, J. Van Staden An ethnobotanical survey of mosquito repellent plants in Mkhanyakude district, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa J Ethnopharmocol, 137 (2011), pp. 1516-1520.
S.Phasomkusolsil, M. Soonwera Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 41 (2010), pp. 831- 840.
EK. Patel, A. Gupta and RJ. Oswal, “A review on: mosquito repellent methods, international journal of pharmaceutical, chemical and biological sciences”, 2012, 2(3), 310-317.
A.K. Mishra, N. Singh, V.P. Sharma Use of Neem oil as mosquito repellent in tribal villages of Mandla district, Madhya Pradesh Indian J Malariol, 32 (1995), pp. 99-103.
N.G.Das, D.R. Nath, I. Baruah, P.K. Talukdar, S.C. Das Field evaluation of herbal mosquito repellents J Commun Dis, 31 (2000), pp. 241-245.
Y.Young-Cheol, L. Eun-Hae, L. Hoi-Seon, L. Dong-Kyu, A. Young-Joon Repellency of aromatic medicinal plant extracts and a steam distillate to Aedes aegypti J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 20 (2004), pp. 146-149.
N.G. Das, Sunil Dhiman, P.K. Talukdar Synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils J of Infection and Pub Health Vol 8, Issue 4, July–August 2015, pp 323-328.
Mendhekar Seema Yuvraj, Bodke Nikita Nivrutti, Thorat Pratik Bharat, S. L Jadhav, “formulation and evaluation of polyherbal mosquito repellent creams (ointment type) with extra skin nourishing impact”, published in world journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 6(12), page no- 1735-1737.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Divyani Singh, Virendra Kumar Singh, Ramesh Kumar Singh, Bharat Mishra
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright © Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.