Review on biological ni-trogen fixation(bnf) in soil management
Keywords:Biological nitrogen fixation ,nitrogenase enzyme , environment , translocation
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important N supply route for both natural vegetation and crop plants. The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 takes place at ambient temperature and sub ambient pressure and is performed by prokaryotes possessing the nitrogenase enzyme. Symbionts are the most significant N fixers for plants, and they are represented primarily by rhizobia (Protobacteria), Frankia (Actinomycetes), and Nostoc/Anabaena (Cyanobacteria). These organisms reside in specialized structures where they have access to a plentiful energy source in the form of photosynthates and an environment that is conducive both to nitrogenase activity and the translocation of fixed N directly to the host plant. Legumes have a special position among agricultural plants, as they have the ability to capture (fix) atmospheric N? through the presence of rhizobia in root nodules, which makes their growth theoretically independent both of soil N status and extraneous fertilizer N addition.
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