Mesoporous Silica: A Review


  • OB Pagar Sanjivani College Of Pharmaceutial Education And Research, Kopargaon, Maharastra, India
  • HS Nagare Sanjivani College Of Pharmaceutial Education And Research, Kopargaon, Maharastra, India
  • YM Chine Sanjivani College Of Pharmaceutial Education And Research, Kopargaon, Maharastra, India
  • RR Autade Sanjivani College Of Pharmaceutial Education And Research, Kopargaon, Maharastra, India
  • PR Narode Sanjivani College Of Pharmaceutial Education And Research, Kopargaon, Maharastra, India
  • VM Sanklecha Sanjivani College Of Pharmaceutial Education And Research, Kopargaon, Maharastra, India


Mesoporous silica, surfactants, Mechanism of synthesis


Mesoporous silica is a mesoporous form of silica and a recent development in nanotechnology. The most common types of mesoporous nanoparticles are MCM-41 and SBA-15.Mesoporous materials consist of inorganic metal oxides, like silica or alumina, and have pore sizes in the range of between 2 and 50 nm. They are synthesized by using a surfactant forming regularly aligned assemblies that are used as a template for the metal oxide, followed by template removal. They are also water soluble, chemically and thermally stable with mechanical strength and are toxicologically safe. In this review focused on  components of mesoporous silica and its mechanism of synthesis process.


Download data is not yet available.


Raman NK, Anderson MT, Brinker CT. Template?basedapproaches to the preparation of nanoporous silicas. ChemMater 1996; 8: 1682? 1701.

Sayari A. Aluminosilicate MCM?48 mesostructures assembeledfrom dried zeolite precursors and gemini surfactant. ChemMater 1996; 8: 1840? 1852.

Corma A. Mesostructuredzeolitic materials and methods ofmaking and using the same. Chem Rev 1997; 97: 2373? 2419.

Moller K, Bein T. Synthesis and Characterization ofFunctionalized MCM?41 with copper– and manganese–phenanthroline complexes. Chem Mater 1998; 10: 2950.

Causal U, Schuth F. Ordered mesoporous materials.Microporous Mesoporous Mater 1999; 27: 131? 149.

Ying JY, Mehnert CP, Wong MS, Angew.Synthesis andapplications of supramolecular?templated mesoporousmaterials. ChemInt Ed 1999; 38? 56.

Stein A, Melde BJ, Schroden RC. Hybrid inorganic?organicmesoporous silicates?nanoscopic reactors coming of age.AdvMater 2000; 12: 1403? 1419.

Sanchez C, Soler?Illia GJ de AA, Ribot F, Lalot T, Mayer CR, Cabuil V.Designed hybrid or-ganic?inorganic nanocomposites fromfunctional nanobuilding blocks. Chem Mater 2001; 13: 3061? 3083.

Polarz S, Smarsly B. Nanoporous materials (Review). J NanosciNanotechnol 2002; 2: 581? 612.

Davis ME. Ordered porous materials for emerging applications.Nature 2002; 417: 813? 821.

Vinu A, Murugesan V, Hartmann M. Pore size engineering andmechanical stability of cubic mesoporous SBA?1 molecularsieves. Chem Mater 2003; 15: 1385 ?1393.

Okabe A, Fukushima T, Ariga K, Niki M, Aida T.Tetrafluoroborate salts as site?selective promoters for sol?gelsynthesis of mesoporous silica. J Am ChemSoc 2004; 126: 9013? 9016.

Ariga K. Template?assisted nano?patterning from submicronscaleto submolecular?level. J Nanosci-Nanotechnol 2004; 4: 23?34.

Taguchi A, Schu¨ th F, Ordered mesoporous materials incatalysis. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 2005; 77: 1? 45

Vinu A, Hossain KZ, Ariga K, Recent Advances inFunctionalization of Mesoporous Silica. J Nanosci-Nanotechno l2005; 5: 347? 371

Sing KSW, Everett DH, Haul RHW, Moscou L, Pierotti R A,Rouquerol J, Siemieniwska T. Reporting phy-sisorption data forgas/solid systems. Pure ApplChem 1985; 57: 603? 619.

Mal NK, Fujiwara M, Tanaka Y. Photocontrolled reversiblerelease of guest molecules from cou-marin?modifiedmesoporous silica. Nature 2003; 421: 350? 353.

Iler RK, The chemistry of silica. Wiley and Sons Inc. 1979; 680?687.

Wefers K, Misra C, Alcoa Technical, Paper No 19, Revised.Oxides and hydroxides of aluminum alcoa laboratories. 1987.

Yanagisawa T, Schimizu T, Kuroda K, Kato Bull C. Thepreparation of alkyltriinethyl?aininonium–kaneinitecomplexes and their conversion to microporous materials.ChemSoc Japan 1990; 988? 992.

Pinnavia T. Intercalated Clay. J Catalysts Science 1983; 220:365? 371.

Kresge CT, Leonowicz ME, Roth WJ, Vartuli JC, Beck JS. Orderedmesoporous molecular sieves synthe-sized by a liquid?crystaltemplate mechanism. Nature 1992; 359: 710? 712.

Kresge CT, Leonowicz ME, Roth WJ, Vartuli JC, U S Patent,1992; US 5,098,684.

Beck JS, Chu CT, Johnson ID, Kresge CT, Leonowicz ME, RothWJ, Vartuli JC, US Patent, 1992 ; 5,145,816.

Beck JS, Vertuli JC, Roth WJ, Leonowicz ME, Kresge CT, SchmittKD, Chu C, Olson DH, Sheppard EW, McCullen SB, Higgins JB,Schlenker JL. A new family of mesoporous molecular sievesprepared with liquid crystal templates. J Am ChemSoc 1992;114: 10834? 10843.

Zhao D, Huo Q, Fena J, Chemelka BF, Stucky GD. Nonionictriblock and mesoporous silica structures. J AmerChemSoc1998; 120: 6024? 6036.

Hata H. Adsorption of taxol into ordered mesoporous silicaswith various pore diameters. Chem Mater 1999; 11: 1110?1119.

Tanev PT, Pinnavaia TJ. A neutral templating route to mesoporous molecular sieves. Science 1995; 267: 865? 867.

Bagshaw SA, Prouset E, Pinnavaia TJ. Templating of mesoporous molecular sieves by nonionic polyethylene oxidesurfactants. Science 1995; 269: 1242? 1244.

Zhao D, Feng J, Huo Q, Melosh N, Fredickson GH, Chmelka BF,Stucky GD. Triblock copolymer syntheses of mesoporous silicawith periodic 50 to 300 angstrom pores. Science 1998; 279:548? 552.

G. S. Attard, J. C. Glyde, C. G. GVltner, Nature 1995, 378, 366 –368.

C-Y.Chen, S.L.Burkett, H-L Li, M.E.Davis, microporous materials 2 (1993), 27

J.s.Beck, J.C.Vartuli, W.J.Roth, M.E.Leonowicz, C.T.Kresge, K.D.Schmitt, C.T-W.Che, D.H.Olsson,E.W.Sheppard, S.B.McCullen, J.B.Higgins, J.L.Schlenker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114 (1992), 10834.

C.T.Kresge, M.E.Leonowicz, W.J.Roth, J.C.Vartuli, J.S.Beck, Nature 359 (1992), 710.

D.Zhao, Q.Huo, J.Feng, B.F.Chmelka, G.D.Stucky, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120 (1998), 6024.

D.Zhao, J.Feng, Q.Huo, N.Melosh, G.H.Fredrickson, B.F.Chmelka, G.D.Stucky, Science 279(1998), 548.

F.Zhang, Y.Yan, H.Yang, C.Yu, B.Tu, D.Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005), 8723

Q.Huo, D.I.Margolese, G.D.Stucky, Chem. Mater. 8 (1996), 1147.

Kawi, S. and Lai, M.W. 2002. Supercritical FluidExtraction of Surfactant from Si-MCM-41. AIChE Journal., 48(7): 1572 – 1580

Samanta, S., Giri, S., Sastry, P.U., Mal, N.K., Manna,A. and Bhaumik, A. 2003, Synthesis andcharacterization of iron-rich highly ordered mesoporous Fe-MCM-41. Ind.Eng.Chem.Res. 42: 3012-3018.

Ying Li., ZhaochiFeng., YuxiangLian., Keqiang Sun.,Lei Zhang, GuoqingJia, Qihua Yang, andCan Li. 2005. Direct synthesis of highly orderedFe-SBA-15 Mesoporous materials under weakacidic conditions, Microporous and MesoporousMaterials., 84 : 41– 49.

Zaki, S., Seddegi., UwaisBudrthumal., AbdulrahmanA., Al-Arfaj., Adnan M., Al-Amerc. and Sami,A.I. Barri. 2002. Catalytic cracking ofpolyethylene over all-silica MCM-41 molecular sieve. Applied Catalysis. A: General., 225:167–176.

Akira Endo., Yuki Inagi., Satoko Fujisaki., TakujiYamamoto., Takao Ohmori. and Masaru Nakaiwa. 2006. Simple and Rapid Synthesis ofMesoporous Silica by Vaccum solvent Evaporation.AIChE. Journal., 52(3):1275 – 1277.

Yeping Xu., Shangjie Xu., Thomas Emmler., FrankRoelofs., Christoph Boettcher., Rainer Haagand GerdBuntkowsky. 2008. A Novel GreenTemplate for the Synthesis of Meso- porous Silica.Chem. Eur. J., 14: 3311 –3315

Myers D. Surfaces, interfaces, and colloids, principles andapplications. Surf Sci Tech; VCH: New York, 1992.

Kim JM, Kim SK, Ryoo R. Synthesis of MCM?48 single crystals.ChemCommun 1998; 259? 260.

Ryoo R, Joo SH, Kim JM. Energetically favored formation ofMCM?48 from cationic?neutral surfactant mixtures. J PhysChem B 1999; 103: 7435? 7440.

Garcia?Bennett AE, Terasaki O, Che S, Tatsumi T. Structuralinvestigations of AMS?n mesoporous materials by transmissionelectron microscopy. Chem Mater 2004; 16: 813? 821.

Che S, Liu Z, Ohsuna T, Sakamoto K, Terasaki O, Tatsumi T.Synthesis and characterization of chiral mesoporous silica.Nature 2004; 429: 281? 284.

Namba S, Mochizuki A, Kito M. Fine control of pore size ofhighly ordered MCM?41 by using template mixtures ofdodecyltrimethylammonium bromide/ hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide with various molar raios. Chem Lett 1998; 569? 570.

Namba S, Mochizuki A, Kito M. Preparation of highly orderedMCM?41 with docosyl-trimethylammonium chloride (C22TMAC1) as a template and fine control of its pore size. StudSurf SciCatal 1998; 117: 257? 264.

Suzuki K, Kenichi K, Imai H. Synthesis of silica nanoparticleshaving a well?ordered mesostructure using a double surfactantsystem. J Am ChemSoc 2004; 126: 462? 463.

Ohkubo T, Ogura T, Sakai H, Abe M. Phase behaviour of cationivand anionic mixed surfactant. J Colloid InterfSci 2007; 312: 42.

Cheng YW, Hsu YT, Yang CM. Structural modulation of cage?like mesoporous KIT?5 silica by post?synthesis treatments withammonia and/or sulfuric acid.Microporous Mesoporous Mater 2009 ; 117 : 249–256.

D. A. Loy, K. J. Shea, Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 1431 – 1442.

K. J. Shea, D. A. Loy, Chem. Mater. 2001, 13, 3306 – 3319.

S. Inagaki, S. Guan, Y. Fukushima, T. Ohsuna, O. Terasaki, J.Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 9611 – 9614

T. Asefa, M. J. MacLachlan, N. Coombs, G. A. Ozin, Nature1999, 402, 867 – 871.

VaishaliDange, Vishal Pande, SomnathVibhute; Mesoporous Silica: A Promising Scaffold for Delivery of Poorly Water Soluble Drugs April 2015.


217 Views | 168 Downloads

How to Cite

OB Pagar, HS Nagare, YM Chine, RR Autade, PR Narode, and VM Sanklecha. “Mesoporous Silica: A Review”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics and Drug Analysis, vol. 6, no. 1, Jan. 2018, pp. 1-12,



Review Articles
Share |