A REVIEW ON YELLOW FEVER
Keywords:Yellow fever, zika virus, Aedes Aegypti Mosquito, Vaccines
Yellow fever is one of the viral hemorrhagic fevers widely spreading in the major parts of Africa, American, and Europe continents. Yellow fever is the most dangerous disease because it is responsible for lakhs of death of people approximately more than 2,00,000 annually. Aedes mosquitoes acts as a vector for rapid transmission of yellow fever as it carries yellow fever virus and injected into host for replication of virus. Severe symptoms noticed in patients who are suffering from yellow fever includes severe headache, high fever, low pulse, jaundice, hematemesis, chills, and hepatic necrosis. The infection of yellow fever virus occurs in two forms i.e urban cycle and sylvatic cycle. Unlike zika and other viruses yellow fever virus having an advantage effective vaccination is available for it. Vaccination acts very effectively in reducing the mortality rate upto 85%. Vaccine provides life long immunity against the yellow fever virus and even booster dose is not needed for it. Vaccination provided compulsory to the people who are travelling from epidemic areas to other countries. There is no risk of yellow fever in asia but recently china imported 6 cases of yellow fever accidentally. India is one of the most favourable place for rapid transmission of yellow fever because aedes aegypti mosquitoes responsible for wide spread of disease is much more in abundance. But till now none of the cases with yellow fever is reported in india. In future if yellow fever unfortunately enters india it destroys the huge population within short period of time before vaccine stocks are delivered.
V. T. K. Chow, Y. C. Chan, R. Yong, “Monitoring of dengue viruses in field-caught Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes by a type-specific polymerase chain reaction and cycle sequencing,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 578–586, 1998.
J. J. Spielvogel, Exploration and Expansion Glencoe World History, Glencoe/McGraw-Hil, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
J. G. B. Derraik, “A scenario for invasion and dispersal of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in New Zealand,” Journal of Medical Entomology,vol.43,no.1,pp.1–8,2006.
W. B. Messer, U. T. Vitarana, K. Sivananthan et al., “Epidemiology of dengue in Sri lanka before and after the emergence of epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,vol.66,no.6,pp.765–773,2002.
C. C. Tam, H. Tissera, A. M. de Silva et al., “Estimates of dengue force of infection in children in Colombo, Sri Lanka,” PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 7, Article ID e2259, 2013.
M. Kurukumbi, J. P. Wali, S. Broor et al., “Seroepidemiology and active surveillance of dengue fe-ver/dengue haemorrhagic fever in Delhi,” Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol.55, no.3, pp. 149-156, 2001.
M. Theiler and C. R. Anderson, “The relative resistance of dengue immune monkeys to yellow fever virus,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.24, no.1, pp.115-117, 1975.
R. O. Izurieta, M. Macaluso, D. M. Watts et al., “Anamnestic immune response to dengue and decreased severity of yellow fever,” Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, vol.1, no.2, pp.111-16, 2009.
M. Wallbridge and W. G. Downs, “The communicability of yellow fever,” Annals of Internal Medi-cine,vol.3,pp.7–18,1891.
A.Amarasinghe, J. N. Kuritsky, G. William Letson, and H. S. Margolis, “Dengue virus infection in Africa,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1349–1354, 2011.
B. R. Miller, T. P. Monath, W. J. Tabachnick, and V. I. Ezike, “Epidemic yellow fever caused by an incompetent mosquito vector,” Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol.40, no.4, pp. 396-399, 1989.
T. Mashimo, D. Simon-Chazottes, and J.-L. Guenet, “Innate resistance to flavivirus infections and the functions of 2 oligoadenylate synthetases,” Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol.321, pp.85-100,2008.
W. C. Black IV, K. E. Bennett et al., “Flavivirus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti,” Archives of Medical Re-search, vol.33, pp.379-388, 2002.
A. Sall, O. Faye, M. Diallo, C. Firth, A. Kitchen, and E. C. Holmes, “Yellow fever virus exhibits slower evolutionary dynamics than dengue virus,” Journal of Virology,vol.84,no. 2, pp. 765–772, 2010.
A.-B. Failloux, M. Vazeille-Falcoz, L. Mousson, and F. Rodhain, “Genetic control of vectorial competence in Aedes mosquitoes,” Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique, vol.92, no.4, pp. 266-273, 1999.
Mutebi JP, Wang H, Li L, Phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships among yellow fever virus isolates in Africa. J Virol 2001; 75:6999.
Vasconcelos PF, Bryant JE, da Rosa TP, Genetic divergence and dispersal of yellow fever virus, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10:1578.
Dennis LH, Reisberg BE, Crosbie J, The original haemorrhagic fever: yellow fever. Br J Haematol 1969; 17:455.
Tigertt WD, Berge TO, Gochenour WS, Experimental yellow fever. Trans N Y Acad Sci 1960; 22:323.
Monath TP, Brinker KR, Chandler FW, Pathophysiologic correlations in a rhesus monkey model of yellow fever with special observations on the acute necrosis of B cell areas of lymphoid tissues. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1981; 30:431.
Quaresma JA, Barros VL, Fernandes ER, Reconsideration of histopathology and ultrastructural aspects of the human liver in yellow fever. Acta Trop 2005; 94:116.
Bae HG, Drosten C, Emmerich P, Analysis of two imported cases of yellow fever infection from Ivory Coast and The Gambia to Germany and Belgium. J Clin Virol 2005; 33:274.
Quaresma JA, Barros VL, Pagliari C, Revisiting the liver in human yellow fever: virus-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes associated with TGF-beta, TNF-alpha and NK cells activity. Virology 2006; 345:22.
Quaresma JA, Barros VL, Fernandes ER, Immunohistochemical examination of the role of Fas ligand and lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of human liver yellow fever. Virus Res 2006; 116:91.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright © Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.