Epidemiological studies on Petroleum toxicity
Keywords:Gasoline, Toxicity, epidemiological studies
Gasoline or petrol is the generic term for petroleum fuel used for internal combustion of engines. Petroleum fumes are ubiquitous in our environment and the common sources of contact or exposure are petrochemical industries (refineries, oils field, and filling stations) and homes. Also the daily use of petroleum outside the industrial settings is likely to have effect on users. The present review compiles the epidemiological studies done in various parts of world on the harmful effects of petroleum products.The available studies suggest that petroleum products are more toxic to liver and kidney as compared to other organs, No conclusive studies are available to support the role of petroleum products in skin, respiratory,reproductive and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Micyus NJ, McCurry JD Seeley JV.(2005) Analysis of aromatic compounds in gasoline with flow-switching comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A ; 086:115-121.
Lewne M, Nise G, Lind ML, Gustavsson P.(2006) Exposure to particles and nitrogen dioxide among taxi, bus lorry drivers.Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 79:220-226.
Cecil, R., R.J. Ellison, K. Larnimaa, S.A. Margary, J.M. Mata, L. Morcillo, J.M. Muller, D.R. Peterson and D. Short, (1997). Exposure profile: Gasoline. CONCAWE Report No 9.7/52.
Takamiya, M., H. Niitsu, K. Saigusa, J. Kanetake and Y. Aoki, (2003),A case of acute gasoline intoxication at the scene of washing a petrol tank. Leg Med. (Tokyo),:165-169.
Cairney, S., P. Maruff, C. Burns and B. Currie, (2002). The neurobehavioral consequences of petrol (gasoline) sniffing. Neurosci. Biobehav. R,;26: 81-89.
Chilcott, R.P., (2007). Petrol Toxicological Overview. Health Protection Agency Version, 2; :1-16.
Lewne M, Nise G, Lind ML, Gustavsson P,(2006),Exposure to particles and nitrogen dioxide among taxi, bus lorry drivers, Int Arch Occup Environ Health;79:.220-6.
Yamamoto, T. and C.B. Wilson, (1987),Binding of anti-basement membrane antibody to alveolar basement membrane after intratracheal gasoline instillation in rabbits. Am. J. Pathol;126:497-505.
Burgaz, S., P.J. Borm and F.J. Jongeneelen( 1992). Evaluation of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxy-pyrene and thioethers in workers exposed to bitumen fumes.Int. Arch. Occ. Env
. Hea.;63: 397-401.
Ueng, T.H., W.P. Hwang, R.M. Chen, H.W. Wang, M.L. Kuo, S.S. Park and F.P. Guengerich (1998), Effects of motocycle exhaust on cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases and glutathione S-Transferase in rat tissues. J. Toxcol. Environ. Health; 54: 509-527.
Zahlsen K, Nielson AM, Eide I, Nielson OG (1993),Inhalation Kinetics of C8-C10, 1-alkenes and isoalkanes in rats after repeated exposure,Pharmacol Toxicol. ;73:163-8
Sipos PK, Szentmihalyi E, Feher M,Szilagy AM, Blazovics A,(2003) Some effects of lead contamination on liver and gallbladder bile. Acta Biol Szegediensisi. ;.47 139 -42.
Abdel-Baset H, Omar E, Samar HA, Fathy A, HafezY, Dawish A.(1997) Biochemical effect of antioxidants on lipids and liver function in experimentally induced liver damage. Ann. Clin Biochem. ; 34: 656-63.
OnwurahINE.(1999) Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in Azotobacter vinelandii exposed to mercury, silver, crude oil and fenton reagent. J Toxic Substance. ; 18: 167 -76
Stadman, R.R.,(1990). Metal ion catalyzed oxidation of proteins: Biochemical mechanism and biological consequences.. Free RadicalBio. Med.;9: 315-325
BirnboimHC, Kanabus-Kamiska M.(1985) The production od DNA strand breaks in human leucocytes by superoxide anion may involve a metabolic process. Proc NatAcad Sci. ;82:6820-4.
Cheesbrough M.(1999) District laboratory practicein tropical countries. 2nded. Cambrige: Cambridge University Press.
Gali RM,Daja A, Mamza YP, Ani GI (2012),Liver enzymes and protein among petrol hawkers and petrol-pump attendants in a Nigerian population,Adv Lab Med 2(3); 123 -129.
Duricic J and Duricic G.(1991) Morphologic change in the lungs, kidney and liver parenchyma in pregnant female rats treated with petroleum. Med Archeol . ; 45: 23 -5.
Dede B and Kagbo HD.(2001) Investigation of acute toxicological effect of diesel fuel in Rats (Rattus rattus) using histophstological methods. J Applied Sci Environ. ;5 :83–4.
Shibata K, Ashida H,Kanadawa K(1992),Effects of prolonged exposure to dietary DDT and PCB on rat liver morphology. Arc Environ Contam Toxicol.;10 : 171-83.
Nwanjo, H U; and Ojiako, O (2007) A Investigation of the Potential Health Hazards of Petrol Station Attendants in Owerri Nigeria J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 11 (2) :197 - 200
Sunmonu TO and Oloyede OB.(2007),Biochemical assessment of the effect of crude oil contaminated catfish (clarias gariepinus) on the hepatocytes and performance of rat. Afr J Biochem Res;1:.83-9.
Artimaeus and Jacobs,Naza Mohammad Ali(2004),Immunoglobulin classes and liver function Tests in Nigerian petrol attendants,Indian J Occup Environ Med, Departments of Chemical Pathology and Immunology.;10,: 58-61.
Khan, A. A.; Coppock, R. W.; Schuler, M. M. and Geleta, L. (2002) Biochemical changes as early stage systemic bio-markers of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in rats,Toxicolology Letters ; 134:195-200
Vyskocit, A., Popler, A. and Skutilova,L.(1991).,Urinary excretion of proteins and enzymes in workers exposed to hydrocarbons.,International Archeology of Occupational and Environmental Health;63,:.359-362.
Naza Mohammad Ali Mahmood, Dler Mohammad Salh Sharef , Saad Abdulrahman Hussain (2013),Plasma proteins profile and renal function relative to exposure time of gasoline filling station workers in sulaimani city.Int J Pharm Pharm Sci,; 5,(4),page :334-338.
Akin sun OM, Arinola OG, Salimonu LS (2006),Immunoglobulin classes and liver function Tests in Nigerian petrol attendants,Indian J Occup Environ Med, Departments of Chemical Pathology and Immunology;10: 58-61.
Mahmood NMA (2012),Relationship between exposure to petrol products and the trace metal status, liver toxicity and hematological markers in gasoline filling workers in Sulaimani city.J Environ Occup Sci ; 1(1):.6-11.
Rankin GO, Hong SK, Anestis DK, Ball JG, Valentovic MA.(2008) Mechanistic aspects of 4-amino-2,6-dichlorophenol-induced in vitro nephrotoxicity, Toxicology; 245:123-129.
Pfaller W, Gstraunthaler G.(1998) Nephrotoxicity testing in vitro: what we know and what we need to know. Environ Health Perspect ; 106(2):559-569.
Siegel P,Saxena RK, Saxena QB, Ma JK, Ma JY,Yin XJ,Castranova V,Al-Humadi N,Lewis DM (2004) Effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) on immune responses: contributions of particulate versus organic soluble components. J Toxicol Environ Health A; 67:221-231.
Carrieri M, Bonfiglio E, Scapellato M, Macc I, Tranfo G, Faranda P, Paci E, Bartolucci M.(2006) Comparison of exposure assessment methods in occupational exposure to benzene in gasoline filling-station attendants, Toxicol Lett ; 162:146-152.
Stengel B,Cenee S,Limasset JC,Protois JC,Marcelli A,Brochard P,Hemon D.(1995) Organic solvent exposure may increase the risk of glomerular nephropathies with chronic renal failure. Int J Epidemiol ; 24:427-434.
Jacob S,Hery M,Protois JC,Rossert J,Stengel,B(2007)Effect of organic solvent exposure on chronic kidney disease progression: The Gn-progress Cohort Study,J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18:274-281.
Periago JF, Zambudio A, Prado C.(1997) Evaluation of environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline service stations by gas chromatography. J Chromatography ; 778:263-268.
Premereur, N., C. van den Branden and F. Roels, (1986) Cytochrome P-45O-dependent H202 production demonstrated in vivo. Influence of phenobarbital and allylisopropylacetamide. FEBS Lett.;199: 19-22.
Di Giulio, R.T., P.C. Washburn, R.J. Wennlng, G.W. Winston and C.S. Jewel, (1989). Biochemical responses in aquatic animals: A review of determinants of oxidative stress. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.; 8: 1103-1123
Odewabi,O.A. Ogundahunsi and M. Oyalowo (2014),Effect of Exposure to Petroleum Fumes on Plasma Antioxidant Defense System in Petrol Attendants British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ;.5(2): 83-87, 2044-2459.
Wright, D.A. and P. Welbourne, (2002). Environmental toxicology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Stadman, R.R., (1990). Metal ion catalyzed oxidation of proteins: Biochemical mechanism and biological consequences.. Free Radical Bio. Med.;.9: 315-325
Gille, J.J., C.G. van Berkel and H. Joenje (1994),Mutagenicity of metabolic oxygen radicals in mammalian cell cultures. Carcinogenesis;15:2695-2699.
McCord, J.M. and I. Fridovich, (1969) The utility of superoxide dismutase in studying free radical reactions: Radicals generated by the interaction of sulfite, dimethyl sulphoxide and oxygen. J. Biol. Chem;244:6056-6063.
Cheng, L., E.W. Kellogg and L. Packer, (1981). Photo-inactivation of catalase. Photochem. Photobiol., 34: 124-129.
Huhhes, A.K., K. Streklett, H. Paddilla and D.E. Kohan, (1996). Effect of reactive oxygen species on endothelial-1 production by human mesangial cells. Kidney Int.;49: 181-189.
Khansari, N., Y. Shakiba and M. Mahmoudi (2009),Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress as a major cause of age-related diseases and cancer. Recent Pat.Inflamm. Allergy Drug Discov.;3(1):73-80.
Hill, M.F. and P.K. Singal, (1996)Antioxidant and oxidative stress changes during heart failure subsequent to myocardial infraction in rats, Am. J. Pathol;.148:291-293.
Singal, P.K., A.K. Dhalla, M. Hil and T.P. Thomas (1993),Endogenesis antioxidant changes in the myocardium in response to acute and chronic stress conditions. Mol. Cell Biochem.;429: 179-186.
McCord, J.M., (1996). Effects of positive iron status at a cellular level. Nutr. Rev.; 54: 85-88.
Y Kono and I Fridovich(1982),Superoxide radical inhibits catalase,The Journal of Biological Chemistry Chem;257:5751-5754.
Cheeseman, K.H., (1993). Lipid Peroxidation and Cancer. In: Halliwell, B. and O.I. Aruoma (Eds.), DNA and Free Radicals. Ellis Horwood Ltd., West Sussex, pp: 211-228
Akinosun OM, Arinola OG, Salimonu LS (2006),Immunoglobulin classes and liver function Tests in Nigerian petrol attendants,Indian J Occup Environ Med, Departments of Chemical Pathology and Immunology;10: 58-61.
Young, I.S. and J.V. Woodside, (2001). Antioxidants in health and disease. J. Clin. Pathol.; 54: 176-186.
J.M Harrington (l987) The health experience of workers in the petroleum manufacturing and distribution industry A review of published epidemiological studies prepared on behalf of CONCAWE's Health Management Group and Medical Subgroup @ CONCAWE, The Hague January l987.
Thomas, T.L. Decoufle, P., Moure-Eraso, R. (1980) Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refinery and petrochemical plants. Journal of Occupational Medicine ;22, 97-103
Vanpeenen, P.F.D., Blanchard, A.G., Wolkonsky, P.M. (1985) Cardiovascular risk factors in employees of a petrochemical company,Journal Occupational Medicine ;G: 217-219 .
Amirov, R.O. (1979) Certain problems of occupational hygiene and physiology of efinery process opera-tors/controllers.Gigiena Truda i Professional'nije Zabolevanija; 23, 9-12.
Lebedeva, T.A., Rusinova, V.G., Valirakhmanova, T.D. (1970) The cardiovascular system changes in workers of the Perm city petroleum exploitation combine. Tr. Perm. Med. Inst; 82:106-108
Dimchev, M.M. (1976) Hemodynamics in hypertonic persons working in petroleum processing plants (refineries) Azerbajdzanskij Medicinskij Zurnal ;2: 78-84.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright © Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.